niroante moh niroante moh .

niroante moh

dxyrjtxujrt

ريزي كه ميان ترامپ و تيم همراه او و تيم‌هاي هيات‌هاي ديگر در هامبورگ انجام شد اما به نظر نمي‌رسد كه دو طرف در اين زمينه به ديدگاه‌هاي هم نزديك شدند. برهمين اساس، آنگلا مركل، صدراعظم آلمان در كنفرانس خبري پايان نشست گروه ٢٠ گفت: همه كشورها به جز امريكا موافقت كردند كه توافق آب و هوايي پاريس غير قابل بازنگري است.ستم خريد و فروش سهامقبل از شروع سرمايه‌گذاري، صفحه آموزش بورس را كامل مطالعه كنيد. شماره خود را اينجا ثبت كنيد، تا از طريق پيامك از دوره‌هاي آموزشي مربوط به شهر خود با خبر شويد.تاپيكو ( س. نفت و گاز و پتروشيمي تامين )شروع موضوع توسط بركي ‏20 roots of pine trees. However, following the
outlawing of psilocybin mushrooms in the
United Kingdom in 2006, the sale of the still
legal A. muscaria began
increasing.[87]Professor Marija Gimbutas, a
renowned Lithuanian historian, reported to R.
Gordon Wasson on the use of this mushroom in
Lithuania. In remote areas of Lithuania
Amanita muscaria has been consumed at wedding
feasts, in which mushrooms were mixed with
vodka. The professor also reported that the
Lithuanians used to export A. muscaria to the
Lapps in the Far North for use in shamanic
rituals. The Lithuanian festivities are the
only report that Wasson received of ingestion
of fly agaric for religious use in Eastern
Europe.[88]SiberiaAmanita muscaria was widely
used as an entheogen by many of the
indigenous peoples of Siberia. Its use was
known among almost all of the Uralic-speaking
peoples of western Siberia and the
Paleosiberian-speaking peoples of the Russian
Far East. There are only isolated reports of
A. muscaria use among the Tungusic and Turkic
peoples of central Siberia and it is believed
that on the whole entheogenic use of A.
muscaria was not practised by these
peoples.[89] In western Siberia, the use of
A. muscaria was restricted to shamans, who
used it as an alternative method of achieving
a trance state. (Normally, Siberian shamans
achieve trance by prolonged drumming and
dancing.) In eastern Siberia, A. muscaria was
used by both shamans and laypeople alike, and
was used recreationally as well as
religiously.[89] In eastern Siberia, the
shaman would take the mushrooms, and others
would drink his urine.[90] This urine, still
containing psychoactive elements, may be more
potent than the A. muscaria mushrooms with
fewer negative effects such as sweating and
twitching, suggesting that the initial user
may act as a screening filter for other
components in the mushroom.[91]The Koryak of
eastern Siberia have a story about the fly
agaric (wapaq) which enabled Big Raven to
carry a whale to its home. In the story, the
deity Vahiyinin ("Existence")famous uses of
the mushroom are in the video game series
Super Mario Bros. (specifically two of the
power-up items and the platforms in several
stages),[125] and the dancing mushroom
sequence in the 1940 Disney film
Fantasia.[126]LiteratureJose de Creeft's
sculpture Alice in Wonderland in Eastern
Central Park, New York. Alice sits on a
mushroom, inviting children to climb up and
join her. The mushroom in the sculpture is
not a faithfully reproduced Amanita muscaria;
the reference within Lewis Carroll's original
literary work upon which the sculpture is
based is often discussed.[127][128]An account
of the journeys of Philip von Strahlenberg to
Siberia and his descriptions of the use of
the mukhomor there was published in English
in 1736. The drinking of urine of those who
had consumed the mushroom was commented on by
Anglo-Irish writer Oliver Goldsmith in his
widely read 1762 novel, Citizen of the
World.[129] The mushroom had been identified
as the fly agaric by this time.[130] Other
and his spittle became the wapaq, and his
saliva becomes the warts. After experiencing
the power of the wapaq, Raven was so
exhilarated that he told it to grow forever
on earth so his children, the people, could
learn from it.[92] Among the Koryaks, one
report said that the poor would consume the
urine of the wealthy, who could afford to buy
the mushrooms.[93]Other reports of useThe
Finnish historian T. I. Itkonen mentions that
A. muscaria was once used among the Sami
people: sorcerers in Inari would consume fly
agarics with seven spots.[94] In 1979, Said
Gholam Mochtar and Hartmut Geerken published
an article in which they claim to have
discovered a tradition of medicinal and
recreational use of this mushroom among a
Parachi-speaking group in Afghanistan.[95]
There are also unconfirmed reports of
religious use of A. muscaria among two
Subarctic Native American tribes. Ojibwa
ethnobotanist Keewaydinoquay Peschel reported
its use among her people, where it was known
as the miskwedo.[96][97] This information was
enthusiastically received by Wasson, although
evidence from other sources was lacking.[98]
There is also one account of a Euro-American
who claims to have been initiated into
traditional Tlicho use of Amanita


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xujrtxseuy

و همچنين توافقنامه آب و هواي پاريس اصلي‌ترين موضوعات مورد اختلاف ميان كشورها با امريكاي ترامپ است. برهمين اساس آنگلا مركل، صدراعظم آلمان نيز هشدار داده بود كه رويكرد امريكا در مورد مسائل اساسي در حال تخريب كل روند مذاكراتي است. رييس‌جمهور امريكا با شعار امريكا در اولويت است به روي كار آمد و اكنون به نظر مي‌رسد كه قصد دارد خروج كشورش از برخي توافقنامه‌هاي تجارت بين‌الملل يا مذاكره براي رسيدن به اين توافق‌ها را كليد بزند. آنگلا مركل روز گذشته به صراحت اعلام كرد كه همه در نشست گروه بيست تجارتي آزاد اما عادلانه مي‌خواهند. با وجود بحث‌هاي سنگين و‌ Vanadium is present in fruit-bodies as an
organometallic compound called amavadine.[78]
The biological importance of the accumulation
process is unknown.[79]SymptomsFly agarics
are known for the unpredictability of their
effects. Depending on habitat and the amount
ingested per body weight, effects can range
from nausea and twitching to drowsiness,
cholinergic crisis-like effects (low blood
pressure, sweating and salivation), auditory
and visual distortions, mood changes,
euphoria, relaxation, ataxia, and loss of
equilibrium.[48][49][54][ 5 7]In cases of
serious poisoning the mushroom causes
delirium, somewhat similar in effect to
anticholinergic poisoning (such as that
caused by Datura stramonium), characterised
by bouts of marked agitation with confusion,
hallucinations, and irritability followed by
periods of central nervous system depression.
Seizures and coma may also occur in severe
poisonings.[49][54] Symptoms typically appear
after around 30 to 90 minutes and peak within
three hours, but certain effects can last for
several days.[51][53] In the majority of
cases recovery is complete within 12 to 24
hours.[63] The effect is highly variable
between individuals, with similar doses
potentially causing quite different
reactions.[48][53][80] Some people suffering
intoxication have exhibited headaches up to
ten hours afterwards.[53] Retrograde amnesia
and somnolence can result following
recovery.[54]TreatmentMed i cal attention
should be sought in cases of suspected
poisoning. If the delay between ingestion and
treatment is less than four hours, activated
charcoal is given. Gastric lavage can be
considered if the patient presents within one
hour of ingestion.[81] Inducing vomiting with
syrup of ipecac is no longer recommended in
any poisoning situations.[82]There is no
antidote, and supportive care is the mainstay
of further treatment for intoxication. Though
sometimes referred to as a deliriant and
while muscarine was first isolated from A.
muscaria and as such is its namesake,
muscimol does not have action, either as an
agonist or antagonist, at the muscarinic
acetylcholine receptor site, and therefore
atropine or physostigmine as an antidote is
not recommended.[83] If a patient is
delirious or agitated, this can usually be
treated by reassurance and, if necessary,
physical restraints. A benzodiazepine such as
diazepam or lorazepam can be used to control
authors recorded the distortions of the size
of perceived objects while intoxicated by the
fungus, including naturalist Mordecai Cubitt
Cooke in his books The Seven Sisters of Sleep
and A Plain and Easy Account of British
Fungi.[131] This observation is thought to
have formed the basis of the effects of
eating the mushroom in the 1865 popular story
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.[127] A
hallucinogenic "scarlet toadstool" from
Lappland is featured as a plot element in
Charles Kingsley's 1866 novel Hereward the
Wake based on the medieval figure of the same
name.[132] Thomas Pynchon's 1973 novel
Gravity's Rainbow describes the fungus as a
"relative of the poisonous Destroying Angel"
and presents a detailed description of a
character preparing a cookie bake mixture
from harvested Amanita muscaria.[133] Fly
agaric combativeness, agitation, muscular
overactivity, and seizures.[48] Only small
doses should be used, as they may worsen the
respiratory depressant effects of
muscimol.[84] Recurrent vomiting is rare, but
if present may lead to fluid and electrolyte
imbalances; intravenous rehydration or
electrolyte replacement may be
required.[54][85] Serious cases may develop
loss of consciousness or coma, and may need
intubation and artificial
ventilation.[49][86] Hemodialysis can remove
the toxins, although this intervention is
generally considered unnecessary.[63] With
modern medical treatment the prognosis is
typically good following supportive
treatment.[59][63]Psychoactive useThe wide
range of psychoactive effects can be
variously described as depressant,
sedative-hypnotic, dissociative, and
deliriant; paradoxical effects may occur.
Perceptual phenomena such as macropsia and
micropsia may occur. Additionally, A.
muscaria cannot be commercially cultivated,
due to its mycorrhizal relationship with the


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xyhrzeste

شروز گذشته به واشنگتن بازگشت و البته به زودي به اروپا بازمي‌گردد و طبق برنامه‌ريزي‌هاي انجام گرفته، پاريس هفته آينده ميزبان رييس‌جمهور امريكا خواهد بود.با امريكاي انزواطلب چه كنيم؟رهبران ٢٠ كشور حاضر در هامبورگ در حالي آخرين روز گردهمايي سالانه خود را طي كردند كه اصلي‌ترين سوال پيش روي همه آنها يك چيز بود: با امريكايي‌ها كه هر روز منزوي‌تر از ديروز مي‌شوند و البته خود خواهان اين انزواگرايي هستند، چه كنيم؟ در حالي كه ميان اغلب كشورهاي حاضر در هامبورگ در مورد موضوعات اساسي روي ميز نوعي از اجماع وجود دارد اما به نظر مي‌رسد كه مسائل تجارت جهاني chemical compounds per mushroom varies widely
from region to region and season to season,
which can further confuse the issue. Spring
and summer mushrooms have been reported to
contain up to 10 times more ibotenic acid and
muscimol than autumn fruitings.[48]A fatal
dose has been calculated as 15 caps.[55]
Deaths from this fungus A. muscaria have been
reported in historical journal articles and
newspaper reports,[56][57][58] but with
modern medical treatment, fatal poisoning
from ingesting this mushroom is extremely
rare.[59] Many older books list Amanita
muscaria as "deadly", but this is an error
that implies the mushroom is more toxic than
it is.[60] The North American Mycological
Association has stated that there were: "no
reliably documented cases of death from
toxins in these mushrooms in the past 100
years".[61] The vast majority (90% or more)
of mushroom poisoning deaths are from eating
the greenish to yellowish "death cap", (A.
phalloides) or perhaps even one of the
several white Amanita species which are known
as destroying angels.[62]The active
constituents of this species are
water-soluble, and boiling and then
discarding the cooking water at least partly
detoxifies A. muscaria.[63] Drying may
increase potency, as the process facilitates
the conversion of ibotenic acid to the more
potent muscimol.[64] According to some
sources, once detoxified, the mushroom
becomes edible.[65][66]Pharmacolo g
yMuscimol, the principal psychoactive
constituent of A. muscariaIbotenic acid, a
prodrug to muscimol found in A.
muscariaMuscarine, discovered in 1869,[67]
was long thought to be the active
hallucinogenic agent in A. muscaria.
Muscarine binds with muscarinic acetylcholine
receptors leading to the excitation of
neurons bearing these receptors. The levels
of muscarine in Amanita muscaria are minute
when compared with other poisonous fungi[68]
such as Inocybe erubescens, the small white
Clitocybe species C. dealbata and C.
rivulosa. The level of muscarine in A.
muscaria is too low to play a role in the
symptoms of poisoning.[69]The major toxins
involved in A. muscaria poisoning are
muscimol (3-hydroxy-5-aminomethyl- 1
-isoxazole, an unsaturated cyclic hydroxamic
acid) and the related amino acid ibotenic
acid. Muscimol is the product of the
decarboxylation (usually by drying) of
ibotenic acid. Muscimol and ibotenic acid
were discovered in the mid-20th
century.[70][71] Researchers in England,[72]
Japan,[73] and Switzerland[71] showed that
the effects produced were due mainly to
ibotenic acid and muscimol, not
muscarine.[10][70] These toxins are not
distributed uniformly in the mushroom. Most
are detected in the cap of the fruit, a
moderate amount in the base, with the
smallest amount in the stalk.[74][75] Quite
rapidly, between 20 and 90 minutes after
ingestion, a substantial fraction of ibotenic
acid is excreted unmetabolised in the urine
of the consumer. Almost no muscimol is
excreted when pure ibotenic acid is eaten,
but muscimol is detectable in the urine after
eating A. muscaria, which contains both
ibotenic acid and muscimol.[53]Ibotenic acid
and muscimol are structurally related to each
other and to two major neurotransmitters of
the central nervous system: glutamic acid and
GABA respectively. Ibotenic acid and muscimol
act like these neurotransmitters, muscimol
being a potent GABAA agonist, while ibotenic
acid is an agonist of NMDA glutamate
receptors and certain metabotropic glutamate
receptors[76] which are involved in the
control of neuronal activity. It is these
interactions which are thought to cause the
psychoactive effects found in intoxication.
Muscimol is the agent responsible for the
majority of the psychoactivity.[12][54]Mu s
cazone is another compound that has more
recently been isolated from European
specimens of the fly agaric. It is a product
of the breakdown of ibotenic acid by
ultra-violet radiation.[77] Muscazone is of
minor pharmacological activity compared with
the other agents.[12] Amanita muscaria and
related species are known as effective
bioaccumulators of vanadium; some species
concentrate vanadium to levels of up to 400
times those typically found in plants.[78]


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cfcxdey

مالي و آزمايش‌هاي موشكي و برنامه هسته‌اي اين كشور، تجارت جهاني، مبارزه با تروريسم و بحران سوريه. ترامپ در حالي روز گذشته با ترزا مي، ‌نخست‌وزير بريتانيا ديدار كرد كه خانم مي‌ نخستين رهبر خارجي بود كه پس از حضور ترامپ در كاخ سفيد به واشنگتن رفت و البته مساله حضور ترامپ در لندن همچنان در ميان مخالفان رييس‌جمهور امريكا در بريتانيا يك خط قرمز محسوب مي‌شود. با اين همه روز گذشته رهبران دو دوست سنتي قديمي با هم در هامبورگ ديداري تازه كردند و گفته شده است كه توافقنامه تجاري ميان لندن- واشنگتن اصلي‌ترين سوژه‌اي بوده كه روي ميز قرار داشته است. ترامپ bears universal veil remnants in the form of
two to four distinct rings or ruffs. Between
the basal universal veil remnants and gills
are remnants of the partial veil (which
covers the gills during development) in the
form of a white ring. It can be quite wide
and flaccid with age. There is generally no
associated smell other than a mild
earthiness.[33][34]Althou g h very
distinctive in appearance, the fly agaric has
been mistaken for other yellow to red
mushroom species in the Americas, such as
Armillaria cf. mellea and the edible Amanita
basii—a Mexican species similar to A.
caesarea of Europe. Poison control centres in
the U.S. and Canada have become aware that
amarill (Spanish for 'yellow') is a common
name for the A. caesarea-like species in
Mexico.[22] Amanita caesarea can be
distinguished by its entirely orange to red
cap which lacks the numerous white warty
spots of the fly agaric. Furthermore, the
stem, gills and ring of A. caesarea are
bright yellow, not white.[35] The volva is a
distinct white bag, not broken into
scales.[36] In Australia, the introduced fly
agaric may be confused with the native
vermilion grisette (Amanita xanthocephala),
which grows in association with eucalypts.
The latter species generally lacks the white
warts of A. muscaria and bears no
ring.[37]Distribution and habitatA. muscaria
in a Pinus radiata plantation, near Mount
Field National Park, TasmaniaAmanita muscaria
var. formosa sensu Thiers, southern Oregon
CoastAmanita muscaria is a cosmopolitan
mushroom, native to conifer and deciduous
woodlands throughout the temperate and boreal
regions of the Northern Hemisphere,[26]
including higher elevations of warmer
latitudes in regions such as Hindu Kush, the
Mediterranean and also Central America. A
recent molecular study proposes that it had
an ancestral origin in the
Siberian–Beringian region in the Tertiary
period, before radiating outwards across
Asia, Europe and North America.[26] The
season for fruiting varies in different
climates: fruiting occurs in summer and
autumn across most of North America, but
later in autumn and early winter on the
Pacific coast. This species is often found in
similar locations to Boletus edulis, and may
appear in fairy rings.[38] Conveyed with pine
seedlings, it has been widely transported
into the southern hemisphere, including
Australia,[39] New Zealand,[40] South
Africa[41] and South America, where it can be
found in the southern Brazilian states of
Paraná[26] and Rio Grande do
Sul.[42]Ectomycorrhizal, Amanita muscaria
forms symbiotic relationships with many
trees, including pine, spruce, fir, birch,
and cedar. Commonly seen under introduced
trees,[43] A. muscaria is the fungal
equivalent of a weed in New Zealand, Tasmania
and Victoria, forming new associations with
southern beech (Nothofagus).[44] The species
is also invading a rainforest in Australia,
where it may be displacing the native
species.[43] It appears to be spreading
northwards, with recent reports placing it
near Port Macquarie on the New South Wales
north coast.[45] It was recorded under silver
birch (Betula pendula) in Manjimup, Western
Australia in 2010.[46] Although it has
apparently not spread to eucalypts in
Australia, it has been recorded associating
with them in Portugal.[47]Toxicitya tall red
mushroom with a few white spots on the
capMature. The white spots may wash off with
heavy rainfallAmanita muscaria poisoning has
occurred in young children and in people who
ingested the mushrooms for a hallucinogenic
experience.[12][48][49] Occasionally it has
been ingested in error, because immature
button forms resemble puffballs.[50] The
white spots sometimes wash away during heavy
rain and the mushrooms then may appear to be
the edible A. caesarea.[51]Amanita muscaria
contains several biologically active agents,
at least one of which, muscimol, is known to
be psychoactive. Ibotenic acid, a neurotoxin,
serves as a prodrug to muscimol, with
approximately 10–20% converting to muscimol
after ingestion. An active dose in adults is
approximately 6 mg muscimol or 30 to 60 mg
ibotenic acid;[52][53] this is typically
about the amount found in one cap of Amanita
muscaria.[54] The amount and ratio of


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وي در حالي كه دوشادوش خانم ترزا مي، ‌نخست‌وزير بريتانيا پيش از ديدار دو جانبه نشسته بود، تاكيد كرد كه ديدار و گفت‌وگوهايش با ولاديمير پوتين، بي‌نظير بوده است. برخي منابع خبري مي‌گويند كه ترامپ در جريان نخستين ديدار با پوتين از رييس‌جمهور روسيه در مورد اخبار مربوط به دخالت مسكو در انتخابات رياست‌جمهوري سال ٢٠١٦ سوال كرده است و اين مساله حتي شايد بيش از مساله توافق بر سر آتش‌بس در بخش‌هايي از جنوب سوريه هم توسط دو طرف به بحث و رايزني گذاشته شده است. در تمام جلسات ترامپ با رهبران كشورهاي متفاوت در هامبورگ چندمساله روي ميز بود: چگونگي مهار كره orange or perhaps even reddish orange. It is
found most commonly in northeastern North
America, from Newfoundland and Quebec south
all the way to the state of Tennessee. Some
authorities (cf. Jenkins) treat these
populations as A. muscaria var. formosa,
while others (cf. Tulloss) recognise them as
a distinct variety.[15][22]Amanitamu s
cariavarpersicina1.jpg Amanita muscaria var.
persicina pinkish to orangish, sometimes
called "melon"-coloured, with poorly formed,
or at times absent remnants of universal veil
on the stem and vassal bulb; it is known from
the southeastern coastal areas of the United
States, and was described in 1977.[15][23]
Recent DNA sequencing suggests this may be a
separate species which may require
naming.2000 Amanita regalis cropped.jpg
Amanita muscaria var. regalis from
Scandinavia and Alaska.[24] is liver-brown
and has yellow warts. It appears to be
distinctive, and some authorities (cf.
Tulloss) treat it as a separate species,
while others (cf. Jenkins) treat it as a
variety of the A. muscaria.[15][25]A 2006
molecular phylogenetic study of different
regional populations of A. muscaria by
mycologist József Geml and colleagues found
three distinct clades within this species
representing, roughly, Eurasian, Eurasian
"subalpine", and North American populations.
Specimens belonging to all three clades have
been found in Alaska; this has led to the
hypothesis that this was the centre of
diversification for this species. The study
also looked at four named varieties of the
species: var. alba, var. flavivolvata, var.
formosa (including var. guessowii), and var.
regalis from both areas. All four varieties
were found within both the Eurasian and North
American clades, evidence that these
morphological forms are polymorphisms rather
than distinct subspecies or varieties.[26]
Further molecular study by Geml and
colleagues published in 2008 show that these
three genetic groups, plus a fourth
associated with oak–hickory–pine forest
in the southeastern United States and two
more on Santa Cruz Island in California, are
delineated from each other enough genetically
to be considered separate species; thus A.
muscaria as it stands currently is evidently
a species complex.[27] The complex also
includes at least three other closely related
taxa that are currently regarded as
species:[19] A. breckonii is a buff-capped
mushroom associated with conifers from the
Pacific Northwest,[28] and the brown-capped
A. gioiosa and A. heterochroma from the
Mediterranean Basin and from Sardinia
respectively. Both of these last two are
found with Eucalyptus and Cistus trees, and
it is unclear whether they are native or
introduced from Australia.[29][30]Descrip t
ionA white-fleshed mushroom with a red skin
cut in halfCross section of fruiting body,
showing pigment under skin and free gillsA
large, conspicuous mushroom, Amanita muscaria
is generally common and numerous where it
grows, and is often found in groups with
basidiocarps in all stages of development.
Fly agaric fruiting bodies emerge from the
soil looking like white eggs. After emerging
from the ground, the cap is covered with
numerous small white to yellow pyramid-shaped
warts. These are remnants of the universal
veil, a membrane that encloses the entire
mushroom when it is still very young.
Dissecting the mushroom at this stage will
reveal a characteristic yellowish layer of
skin under the veil; this is helpful in
identification. As the fungus grows, the red
colour appears through the broken veil and
the warts become less prominent; they do not
change in size, but are reduced relative to
the expanding skin area. The cap changes from
globose to hemispherical, and finally to
plate-like and flat in mature specimens.[31]
Fully grown, the bright red cap is usually
around 8–20 cm (3–8 in) in diameter,
although larger specimens have been found.
The red colour may fade after rain and in
older mushrooms.The free gills are white, as
is the spore print. The oval spores measure
9–13 by 6.5–9 μm; they do not turn blue
with the application of iodine.[32] The stipe
is white, 5–20 cm high (2–8 in) by 1–2
cm (0.4–0.8 in) wide, and has the slightly
brittle, fibrous texture typical of many
large mushrooms. At the base is a bulb that


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xstrtycdi86

جنوب هم نتيجه همين مساله بود. توافق بر سر منطقه تنش‌زدايي‌شده يك گشايش بوده و اين نتيجه عملي همكاري ما با ايالات متحده بود. ما پيش از اعلام اين توافق، با طرف‌هاي منطقه‌اي از جمله اردن و اسراييل مشورت كرديم. اين مشورت‌ها بايد ادامه يابد، چراكه هريك از بازيگران منطقه پيش‌فرض‌ها و «منافع مشروع» خود را دارند كه بايد آنها را در نظر گرفت.تلاش‌هاي لندن- واشنگتن براي كار تجاري بيشتردونالد ترامپ در مدت زمان حضور در هامبورگ با ليست بلندبالايي از رهبران ديدار كرد. از نخست‌وزير بريتانيا تا صدراعظم آلمان. از رييس‌جمهور تركيه تا رييس‌جمهور چين. با اين همه the starting date and primary work for names
of fungi, and names can now be considered
valid as far back as May 1, 1753, the date of
publication of Linnaeus's work.[8] Hence,
Linnaeus and Lamarck are now taken as the
namers of Amanita muscaria (L.) Lam..The
English mycologist John Ramsbottom reported
that Amanita muscaria was used for getting
rid of bugs in England and Sweden, and bug
agaric was an old alternate name for the
species.[3] French mycologist Pierre Bulliard
reported having tried without success to
replicate its fly-killing properties in his
work Histoire des plantes vénéneuses et
suspectes de la France (1784), and proposed a
new binomial name Agaricus pseudo-aurantiacus
because of this.[9] One compound isolated
from the fungus is 1,3-diolein (
1,3-Di(cis-9-octadecenoyl ) glycerol), which
attracts insects.[10] It has been
hypothesised that the flies intentionally
seek out the fly agaric for its intoxicating
properties.[11] An alternative derivation
proposes that the term fly- refers not to
insects as such but rather the delirium
resulting from consumption of the fungus.
This is based on the medieval belief that
flies could enter a person's head and cause
mental illness.[12] Several regional names
appear to be linked with this connotation,
meaning the "mad" or "fool's" version of the
highly regarded edible mushroom Amanita
caesarea. Hence there is oriol foll "mad
oriol" in Catalan, mujolo folo from Toulouse,
concourlo fouolo from the Aveyron department
in Southern France, ovolo matto from Trentino
in Italy. A local dialect name in Fribourg in
Switzerland is tsapi de diablhou, which
translates as "Devil's
hat".[13]ClassificationAm a nita muscaria is
the type species of the genus. By extension,
it is also the type species of Amanita
subgenus Amanita, as well as section Amanita
within this subgenus. Amanita subgenus
Amanita includes all Amanita with inamyloid
spores. Amanita section Amanita includes the
species which have very patchy universal veil
remnants, including a volva that is reduced
to a series of concentric rings and the veil
remnants on the cap to a series of patches or
warts. Most species in this group also have a
bulbous base.[14][15] Amanita section Amanita
consists of A. muscaria and its close
relatives, including A. pantherina (the
panther cap), A. gemmata, A. farinosa, and A.
xanthocephala.[16] Modern fungal taxonomists
have classified Amanita muscaria and its
allies this way based on gross morphology and
spore inamyloidy. Two recent molecular
phylogenetic studies have confirmed this
classification as natural.[17][18]Amanita
muscaria varies considerably in its
morphology, and many authorities recognise
several subspecies or varieties within the
species. In The Agaricales in Modern
Taxonomy, German mycologist Rolf Singer
listed three subspecies, though without
description: A. muscaria ssp. muscaria, A.
muscaria ssp. americana, and A. muscaria ssp.
flavivolvata.[14]Contempo r ary authorities
recognise up to seven varieties:Image Name
DescriptionFliegenpilz, Amanita muscaria.jpg
Amanita muscaria var. muscaria the typical
red-and-white spotted variety. Some
authorities, such as Rodham Tulloss, only use
this name for Eurasian and western Alaskan
populations.[15][19]Amani t a muscaria
26643.JPG Amanita muscaria var. flavivolvata
red, with yellow to yellowish-white warts. It
is found from southern Alaska down through
the Rocky Mountains, through Central America,
all the way to Andean Colombia. Rodham
Tulloss uses this name to describe all
"typical" A. muscaria from indigenous New
World populations.[15][20]White Fly-Agaric
mature.jpg Amanita muscaria var. alba an
uncommon fungus, has a white to a silvery
white cap that has white warts but is similar
to the usual form of mushroom.[15][21]Amanita
muscaria formosa.jpg Amanita muscaria var.
formosa has a yellow to orange-yellow cap
with yellowish warts and stem (which may be
tan). Some authorities (cf. Jenkins) use the
name for all A. muscaria which fit this
description worldwide, others (cf. Tulloss)
restrict its use to Eurasian
populations.[15][22]Flick r - Nicholas T -
Forrest H. Dutlinger Natural Area (Revisited)
(19).jpg Amanita muscaria var. guessowii has
a yellow to orange cap, with the centre more


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vcfkiyct drtd

دادم و به نظر مي‌رسد كه او متقاعد شد. ترامپ وقت زيادي روي اين سوال گذاشت و پاسخ مشخص من هم اين بود كه مدركي براي اثبات اين ادعا وجود ندارد. پوتين در بخش ديگري از اين نشست خبري در مورد تفاوت مواضع دولت كنوني امريكا با دولت «باراك اوباما»، گفت: فكر مي‌كنم موضع ايالات متحده [در قبال سوريه] اكنون عملگرايانه‌تر شده است. تغيير چنداني در مواضع آنها ايجاد نشده، اما به نظر مي‌رسد كه به درك بيشتري از اين واقعيت رسيده‌اند كه اگر ما توان‌مان را به اشتراك بگذاريم، مي‌توانيم دستاوردهاي زيادي داشته باشيم. دستيابي به توافق در مورد اين منطقه تنش‌زدايي‌شده در hymenium is free stipe has a ring and volva
spore print is white ecology is mycorrhizal
edibility: poisonousor psychoactiveAmanita
muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or
fly amanita, is a mushroom and psychoactive
basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the
genus Amanita. Native throughout the
temperate and boreal regions of the Northern
Hemisphere, Amanita muscaria has been
unintentionally introduced to many countries
in the Southern Hemisphere, generally as a
symbiont with pine and birch plantations, and
is now a true cosmopolitan species. It
associates with various deciduous and
coniferous trees.This iconic toadstool is a
large white-gilled, white-spotted, usually
red mushroom, and is one of the most
recognisable and widely encountered in
popular culture. Several subspecies with
differing cap colour have been recognised,
including the brown regalis (often considered
a separate species), the yellow-orange
flavivolvata, guessowii, formosa, and the
pinkish persicina. Genetic studies published
in 2006 and 2008 show several sharply
delineated clades that may represent separate
species.Although classified as poisonous,
reports of human deaths resulting from its
ingestion are extremely rare. After
parboiling—which weakens its toxicity and
breaks down the mushroom's psychoactive
substances—it is eaten in parts of Europe,
Asia, and North America. Amanita muscaria is
noted for its hallucinogenic properties, with
its main psychoactive constituent being the
compound muscimol. The mushroom was used as
an intoxicant and entheogen by the peoples of
Siberia, and has a religious significance in
these cultures. There has been much
speculation on possible traditional use of
this mushroom as an intoxicant in other
places such as the Middle East, Eurasia,
North America, and Scandinavia.Contents 1
Taxonomy and naming 1.1 Classification 2
Description 3 Distribution and habitat 4
Toxicity 4.1 Pharmacology 4.2 Symptoms 4.3
Treatment 4.4 Psychoactive use 4.5 Siberia
4.6 Other reports of use 4.7 Vikings 5 Fly
trap 6 In religion 6.1 Soma 6.2 Christianity
7 Culinary use 8 Legal status 8.1 Australia
8.2 The Netherlands 8.3 United Kingdom 9
Cultural depictions 9.1 Literature 10 See
also 11 References 11.1 Works cited 12
External linksTaxonomy and namingThe name of
the mushroom in many European languages is
thought to be derived from its use as an
insecticide when sprinkled in milk. This
practice has been recorded from Germanic- and
Slavic-speaking parts of Europe, as well as
the Vosges region and pockets elsewhere in
France, and Romania.[1] Albertus Magnus was
the first to record it in his work De
vegetabilibus some time before 1256,[2]
commenting vocatur fungus muscarum, eo quod
in lacte pulverizatus interficit muscas, "it
is called the fly mushroom because it is
powdered in milk to kill flies."[3]Showing
the partial veil under the cap dropping away
to form a ring around the stipeThe 16th-
shamanism is also explored in the 2003 novel
Thursbitch by Alan Garner.[134]See also Fungi
portal List of Amanita
speciesReferencesWasson, Soma: Divine
Mushroom of زيادي در جمع تجزيه
طلب دارد."حقدار" بر خلاف
همفكرانش نزديكي خاصي به
اپوزسيوني دارد كه تجزيه
طلبان از آنان نيز به
عنوان دشمن ياد مي كنند.
قبلي بعدcentury Flemish botanist
Carolus Clusius traced the practice of
sprinkling it into milk to Frankfurt in
Germany,[4] while Carl Linnaeus, the "father
of taxonomy", reported it from Småland in
southern Sweden, where he had lived as a
child.[5] He described it in volume two of
his Species Plantarum in 1753, giving it the
name Agaricus muscarius,[6] the specific
epithet deriving from Latin musca meaning
"fly".[7] It gained its current name in 1783,
when placed in the genus Amanita by
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a name sanctioned in
1821 by the "father of mycology", Swedish
naturalist Elias Magnus Fries. The starting
date for all the mycota had been set by
general agreement as January 1, 1821, the
date of Fries's work, and so the full name
was then Amanita muscaria (L.:Fr.) Hook. The
1987 edition of the International Code of
Botanical Nomenclature changed the rules on


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dutyuvf8

 دارد. او آدم خاصي است، منظور شما را درك مي‌كند، كلمات شما را بسيار سريع تحليل مي‌كند و مي‌تواند به سوالات پاسخ دهد. رييس‌جمهور روسيه تاكيد كرد كه اگر مذاكرات طرفين مانند گفت‌وگوهاي ديروز او با ترامپ ادامه يابد، مي‌توان مطمئن بود كه مي‌توانيم روابط خود را دستكم تا حدي، به سطحي كه نياز داريم ارتقا دهيم. رييس‌جمهور روسيه در ادامه به مهم‌ترين نكته مدنظر امريكايي‌ها هم اشاره كرد و گفت كه ترامپ درباره آنچه دخالت‌هاي روسيه در انتخابات امريكا خوانده مي‌شود نيز بيش از يك بار با وي صحبت كرده است. او چندبار در اين خصوص سوال كرد و من هم چندبار به وي پاسخ عراق، از گروه‌هاي قومي و
مذهبي سو استفاده كرده
است. ايالات متحده بايد به
دنبال فرصت‌هايي باشد تا
بتواند همين كار را در
مناطق كليدي انجام
دهد.كمك در مشروعيت
بخشيدن به اشتياق مردم
آذري براي كسب استقلال
خود، در قياس با تهديد
بمباران مخازن تحقيقاتي
هسته‌اي زيرزميني ايران،
مي‌تواند خطر بسيار
بزرگتري براي ايران به
دنبال داشته باشد. قبلي
بعديFTM Framework قبلي بعديFTM
Frameworkاي نسل جديد نيز باز
شده و نمي خواهند فقط به
عنوان ابزار و مترسك خيمه
شب بازي باشند. اگر به
اميد نسل آينده هستيد،
عجل مجال حضور نخواهد داد
و در توهم و آوارگي از
خاطره ها خواهيد رفت. ضرب
المثل ايراني است كه مي
گويد توبه گرگ (پير) مرگ
است و كينه و نفرت "عليرضا
نظمي افشار" ها از ايران و
تلاش براي تجزيه، خون
ريزي و برادر كشي همچون
سرطاني وجودشان را گرفته
و دچار افسردگي و فروپاشي
از درون و مرگ تدريجي كرده
و اين عاقبت خيانت به خون
جوانان رعناي خاك مقدس
ايران است. قبلي بعديFTM
Frameworkتجزيه طلبان پان
تركيست با اپوزسيون فراري
ايراني به اين افراد و
موسسه هاي پوششي آنان
سپرده شده است. چنين پروژه
هايي با مبالغ اندكي
انجام پذيرفته و به قيمت
هاي بالايي به سازمان هاي
يهودي و آمريكايي فروخته
مي شود.33- دعوت از تجزيه
طلبان پان تركيست مقيم
ايران براي سفر به تركيه و
هدايت مستقيم و غير
مستقيم آنان به مراكز
متعدد فساد.34- تهيه پيش
نويس ها يا متن فراخوان و
بيانيه هاي اعتراضي و
اطلاعيه هاي جعلي تجمع در
شهرهاي آذري نشين در
موسسه هاي پوششي همچون
جريان هاي روزنامه ايران،
درياچه اروميه و ...35-
مشاركت در جذب نخبگان
ايراني بواسطه سفارش
سرويس هاي اطلاعاتي و
ارتباط هدف دار با اساتيد
دانشگاه هاي مناطق آذري
نشين و دعوت از آنان براي
تدريس يا ادامه تحصيل در
تركيه يا كشوري ثالث.36- به
نمايندگي از سرويس هاي
جاسوسي كار سفارش پروژه
هاي مختلف پژوهشي با پوشش
كار و فرصت مطالعاتي براي
اساتيد و دانشجويان ارشد
و دكترا در مناطق آذري
نشين.37- ارتباط گسترده با
تشكل هاي تروريستي پان
عربيست در خارج از كشور و
انجام پروژه هاي مشترك
مطالعاتي و عملياتي در
خصوص جريان هاي پانتركيسم
و پان عربيسم. 38- اين افراد
عليرغم اختلاف هاي بسيار
با گروهك فاحشه هاي سياسي
رجوي و سلطنت طلبان نيز
نشست هايي داشته اند. قبلي
بعديFTM Frameworkصفحه
نخستسياستاقتؠՠ
ادجامعهفرهنگ و هنر This is a
featured article. Click here for more
information.Amanita muscariaFrom Wikipedia,
the free encyclopediaAmanita
muscaria2006-10-25 Amanita muscaria
crop.jpgShowing three stages as the mushroom
expandsScientific classification eKingdom:
FungiDivision: BasidiomycotaClass:
AgaricomycetesOrder: AgaricalesFamily:
AmanitaceaeGenus: AmanitaSpecies: A.
muscariaBinomial nameAmanita muscaria(L.)
Lam. (1783)Amanita muscariaView the
Mycomorphbox template that generates the
following listMycological characteristics
gills on hymenium cap is flator convex


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f5rtiguygvfo

داشته است. البته شايد ترامپ به دليل طرح اين مساله با پوتين در كوتاه‌مدت اعتباري را از آن خود كند اما براي پاك كردن اين صورت مساله كه تمايل بسياري به كار با روس‌ها به هرقيمتي دارد با مشكلات بسياري روبه‌رو است.تجليل پوتين از همتاي امريكاييولاديمير پوتين در پايان نشست گروه ٢٠، از دونالد ترامپ، رييس‌جمهور امريكا تعريف كرد و گفت مسكو و واشنگتن مي‌توانند روابط خود را احيا كنند. وي در اين نشست خبري تاكيد كرد كه دو طرف توانسته‌اند رابطه شخصي با يكديگر ايجاد كنند. پوتين در بخش‌هايي از سخنان خود گفت: ترامپي كه در تلويزيون مي‌بينيد با ترامپ واقعي فرق مردم آذربايجان و مدعيان
سينه چاك حمايت از اين خطه
هوشيار بوده و در زمين
طراحي شده توسط دشمنان
آذزبايجان بازي
نكنند.براي رژيم وهابي آل
سعود و همپالگي هايش
همچون بحرين شيعه
آذزبايجان و شيعه بحرين
هيچ فرقي ندارد پس بايد به
تجزيه طلبان خارج از كشور
كه با دستپاچگي اخبار
حمايت "ابوحسن" را منتشر
مي كنند نهيب زد كه تجزيه
طلبي و تروريست هايي
همچون منافقين دو تيغه يك
قيچي براي تكه تكه كردن
شيعيان در ايران است و پس
بيش از اين در جهل و حماقت
خويش دست و پا نزنند. لازم
به يادآوري است؛
نمايندگان پارلمان در
بحرين توسط پادشاه آل
خليفه انتخاب مي شوند و
نام نمايشي "پارلمان" در
اين كشور و كشورهاي حاشيه
خليج فارس نوعي فريب
افكار عمومي و مجامع
حقوقي بين المللي است و
عملا در خدمت آل خليفه است
نه مردم. قبلي بعديFTM
Frameworkاين افراد فراموش
كرده اند كه دشمنان ايران
با هر ايراني در هر لباسي
اعم از تجزيه طلب و سلطنت
طلب و چپ و ليبرال و فتنه و
برانداز و ... دشمن هستند و
براي آن ها فقط نابودي
ايران به عنوان كشوري
مستقل و قدرتمند منطقه
مهم است و آنان ابزاري بيش
نيستند.اولين محصول رواني
وادار كردن نشستن سلطت
طلب و تجزيه طلب، برانداز
و اصلاح طلب، چپ و ليبرال
بر سر يك سفره، شكستن ته
مانده غرور طرد شدگان و بي
خانمانان است. قبلي بعديFTM
Frameworkه آذربايجان جنوبي
در نظر گرفته مي‌شود،
تقريبا دوبرابر جمهوري
آذربايجان در شمال داراي
جمعيت است. بنا بر
گزارشات، اين پيشنهاد
مورد توجه چندين تن از
اعضاي پارلمان نيز قرار
گرفته است.در ايران، دولت
تهران استان‌هايي كه
ساكنان آنها عمدتا
قوم‌هاي آذري هستند را
آذربايجان شرقي و غربي
مي‌نامد، بنابراين اين
موضوع خود ادله‌اي بر اين
ادعاي دولت باكو مي‌باشد
كه معتقدند سرزمين
آذري‌ها تقسيم شده است.
در واقع، اين قلمرو به
واسطه معاهده تركمنچاي در
سال 1828 و بدون جلب رضايت
آذري‌ها بين روسيه و
ايران تقسيم شد. روسيه
ديگر در اين موضوع عامل
تاثيرگذاري به حساب
نمي‌آيد، چرا كه جمهوري
آذربايجان استقلال خود را
در سال 1991 به هنگام
فروپاشي جماهير شوروي
بدست آورد. ايرانِ امروز
از فارس حدود دو قرن گذشته
بسيار متفاوت است.به
دنبال خبرهاي اخير
پيرامون شكوفايي همكاري
نظامي بين اسرائيل و
آذربايجان، مسئله
آذربايجان مجددا مطرح
گرديده است. حمايت از چنين
همكاري‌ براي ايالات
متحده معقول به حساب
مي‌آيد، چرا كه حكومت
ديكتاتوري و سلطه‌جويانه
موجود در تهران دشمن ما و
نيز دشمن آنها مي‌باشد.
نحوه تعيين هويت، احساس
وفاداري، و اقدامات مردم
خاورميانه را نمي‌توان
هميشه بر اساس خطوط مرزي
موجود بر روي نقشه يك
كتابخانه تعيين كرد.
ايران به منظور افزايش
تاثير خود در لبنان و


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